In this lesson about the Emancipation Proclamation and expanding the goals of the Civil War, students will analyze the Emancipation Proclamation in comparison to an excerpt from President Lincoln's first inaugural address. Students will work in groups using a Card Sort strategy and Paired Text Analysis to guide their interaction with these primary sources. Following discussion, students will revisit their Card Sort to clarify common misconceptions about the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation. Finally, students will create an Elevator Speech explaining the relationship between Juneteenth and emancipation, and why Juneteenth is a significant American holiday.
How did the Emancipation Proclamation impact the Civil War? What was its impact on the institution of slavery in the United States? How is Juneteenth related to emancipation?
Students participate in a Text Impressions strategy using the Emancipation Proclamation.
Students complete an Emancipation Proclamation Card Sort activity to further explore their existing knowledge about the document.
Students participate in a paired text analysis to analyze the Emancipation Proclamation and compare it to Lincoln's first inaugural address to acknowledge the expansion of the war goals. They revisit the Card Sort to further clarify misconceptions about the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation.
Using an article describing Juneteenth, students use an Elevator Speech strategy to explain the relationship between Juneteenth and emancipation and why Juneteenth is a significant holiday.
Students' Paired Text Analysis Charts, Card Sort responses, and Elevator Speeches can serve as evaluations for this lesson.
Lesson Slides (attached)
Text Impressions handout (attached, one per group of four students)
Emancipation Proclamation Card Sort (attached, one per pair of students)
Emancipation Proclamation Card Sort (Answer Key) (attached, optional)
Paired Text Analysis Documents handout (attached, one per student)
Paired Text Analysis Chart (attached, one per student)
Paired Text Analysis Chart (Answer Key) (attached, optional)
Juneteenth Article (attached, one per student)
Computers or other internet-capable digital devices (optional)
Before the lesson, sort students into groups of four. These groups will serve as students' working groups for most of this lesson. Use the attached Lesson Slides to guide the instruction, beginning with slide 3. Introduce to students the Text Impressions strategy, which asks participants to consider their prior knowledge about the U.S. Civil War.
Pass out a copy of the attached Text Impressions handout to each group. Go over the list of words shown on the handout (also shown on slide three). Tell students these words and phrases are listed in the order in which they will appear in the Civil War document. Invite students to work with their groups to create a prediction statement about what they think the main ideas of the document will be and record this statement on their worksheets. Give students 3–4 minutes for this discussion.
Move to slide 4, which contains a political cartoon also shown on the second page of the Text Impressions handout. This political cartoon, titled "Lincoln's Last Warning," which is shown on slide 4 as well. Explain to students that this image relates to the list of words. Allow students 2–3 minutes to analyze this image and revise or add to their prediction statement.
After they have finished their prediction statements, ask each group to elect a spokesperson to share their group's prediction with the class. Call on each group to share out.
After all groups have participated in discussion, share with students that these words came from one of history's most famous documents, the Emancipation Proclamation. Display slide 5 and share the lesson's essential questions. Ask students to consider these questions as they explore the main ideas presented in the Emancipation Proclamation. Consider also sharing the the lesson's learning objectives displayed on slide 6.
If using the digital card sort, provide students with your session code. Then, have students go to student.desmos.com and enter the session code.
Display slide 7. Share with students that the Emancipation Proclamation is arguably one of the most important documents in American history, but it is also one of the most misunderstood. Invite students to continue exploring their prior knowledge of the Emancipation Proclamation by participating in a Card Sort activity.
Divide the groups of four into sets of pairs, and give each pair a set of cards. Ask the pairs to find the heading cards ("The Emancipation Proclamation did" and "The Emancipation Proclamation did not"). Invite pairs to determine which of these two categories the remaining cards fall under. If students are unsure, ask them to make their best guess based on what they do know. Reiterate at this point that it is okay if they do not have all the cards in the correct places. This should take no more than 10 minutes.
Once students have finished sorting the cards to their best ability, ask students to perform a "pair-square," where each set of partners pairs with another set, and that group of four takes turns discussing how each completed their Card Sort. Allow 4–5 minutes for this discussion.
Share with students that, after reading and analyzing the Emancipation Proclamation, they will later come back to their Card Sorts to make changes.
Have students return to their original groups. Give each student a copy of the attached Paired Text Analysis Documents and the Paired Text Analysis Chart. These documents include 1863's Emancipation Proclamation and an excerpt from Lincoln's first inaugural address in 1861. Share with students that, before they can determine how the Emancipation Proclamation impacted the goals of the Civil War, as well as slavery, they should try to gain an understanding of what the Emancipation Proclamation set out to do.
Ask students to read through the first document, "The Emancipation Proclamation," once with their groups. Give students time to do so. Then, display slide 8. Ask students to read though a second time, using the Why-Lighting strategy to highlight three main ideas they see represented in the text. In the margins, students should annotate why they highlighted those phrases.
Next, using a modified Paired Texts H-Chart strategy, ask students to fill out the "Text 1: The Emancipation Proclamation" section of the Paired Text Analysis chart by summarizing the three main ideas of the Emancipation Proclamation. Give groups enough time to finish.
Ask each group to read one of the main ideas they included in their chart. Once all groups have spoken, be sure the ideas covered in the attached Paired Text Analysis Chart (Answer Key) have been shared or discussed. Move to slide 9 to allow students to check their own answers and make sure they have all three ideas written in their charts.
Display slide 10. Ask students to read through the the second document, an excerpt from President Lincoln's first inaugural address, one time with their groups. Remind students that Lincoln wrote his first inaugural address when he became president—two years before he issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Ask students to compare the goals of the Union at the beginning of the Civil War versus after the Emancipation Proclamation had been issued, considering how those goals were connected to slavery. Allow time for students to finish reading. As with before, ask students to read through a second time with the Why-Lighting strategy, this time looking for the most important idea represented in the excerpt from Lincoln's speech. Students should highlight this phrase, then annotate or explain in the margin why they highlighted the phrase or provide a summary of the idea they chose.
Once groups have finished Why-Lighting, ask students to summarize the main idea of Lincoln's first inaugural address in the "Text 2: Lincoln's First Inaugural Address" section of the Paired Text Analysis Chart. After groups are finished, call on various group representatives to read their main idea from the excerpt.
Display slide 11. Make sure that, in this class discussion, it is emphasized that in his first inaugural address, Lincoln said he was not going to interfere with the institution of slavery. An extended version of this answer can also be found in the attached Paired Text Analysis Chart (Answer Key).
After this discussion, ask students to consider what they can determine about the goals for the Union during the Civil War based on evidence from both sources they read. Give groups about 5–10 minutes to create a response for question #1 in the "Both Texts Together" section of the Paired Text Analysis Chart: Based on your analysis of Lincoln's First Inaugural Address (1861) and the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), how does the Emancipation Proclamation impact the Union's goals of the Civil War? Explain. See the Answer Key for possible student responses.
Once students have completed their responses, call on each group to read it to the class. As student groups share, offer them verbal feedback, and allow students to modify their responses based on teacher and peer feedback. After all groups have shared, display slide 12 to further reiterate that, based on the evidence, it is clear that over the course of the war, with the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation, the goals were expanded to include freeing enslaved people in addition to preserving the Union.
Next, direct students to question #2 in the "Both Texts Together" section of the Paired Text Analysis Chart: How does the Emancipation Proclamation impact slavery? Explain. Give students 5–10 minutes to consider the two texts and their prior knowledge about slavery in the United States. Students should again work with their groups to create a response to write in their charts.
Once students have completed their responses, call on each group to read it to the class. As student groups share, offer them verbal feedback, and allow students to modify their responses based on teacher and peer feedback. Show slide 13 to further reiterate that the Emancipation Proclamation threatened the institution of slavery by freeing enslaved people in the states rebelling against the U.S. and by allowing formerly enslaved people to fight for their own freedom and the abolition of slavery.
Finally, move to slide 14 and ask students to revisit their Card Sort activity. Allow students about 5 minutes to make any changes to their Card Sorts based on what they have learned through their analysis of the Emancipation Proclamation and Lincoln's first inaugural address.
Call on each group at least once to choose one of the cards and explain to the whole class how they categorized it and why. The explanation of "why" is most important to generating discussion about the popular misconceptions of the Emancipation Proclamation, its significance, and its limitations. For a complete set of answers, see the attached Card Sort (Answer Key).
Give each student a copy of the attached Juneteenth Article. Before students begin reading, show them the questions on slide 15. Ask students to consider these questions as they read. Then, invite them to read the article with their groups to extend their understanding of the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the struggle for emancipation from slavery more broadly. Once students have finished reading, give them 7–10 minutes to discuss the three questions on slide 15 with their group.
Next, discuss the Juneteenth questions as a whole class, calling on students from each group to contribute to the class discussion. Clarify any misconceptions, and fill in any missing information.
Finally, introduce students to the Elevator Speech activity. Using this strategy, invite students to prepare short, persuasive talk addressing the three Juneteenth discussion questions. This speech should last no more than 60 seconds. Allow adequate time for students to prepare their ideas and compose thoughts, then ask them to present their Elevator Speeches to the class.
Any or all of the following can serve as evaluations for this lesson, depending on your preferences or needs:
Paired Text Analysis Chart
Card Sort response
Flipgrid. (n.d.) https://info.flipgrid.com/
K20 Center. (n.d.). Card sort. Strategies. https://learn.k20center.ou.edu/strategy/d9908066f654727934df7bf4f506976b
K20 Center. (n.d.). Elevator speech. https://learn.k20center.ou.edu/strategy/4787a0baaee3a5bf7e3e8444ee0050e7
K20 Center. (n.d.). Paired texts H-chart. Strategies. https://learn.k20center.ou.edu/strategy/d9908066f654727934df7bf4f5060ba6
K20 Center. (n.d.). Text impressions. https://learn.k20center.ou.edu/strategy/6f19b778b73e4c339d1a7d9653008361
K20 Center. (n.d.). Why-lighting. Strategies. https://learn.k20center.ou.edu/strategy/d9908066f654727934df7bf4f505e7d5
K20 Center. (n.d.). Desmos Classroom. Tech tools. https://learn.k20center.ou.edu/tech-tool/1081