Authentic Lessons for 21st Century Learning

Plus Delta Chart

Lindsey Link, Michell Eike | Published: April 12th, 2023 by K20 Center


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Plus Delta Chart

This instructional strategy is a simple way for students to engage in personal or group reflection as an approach to continuous improvement.

Plus Delta Chart


Continuous improvement should be driven by everyone; this retrospective strategy is a quick way to reflect and gather feedback. Students identify pluses (+), which represent things that are working, what they want to maintain, or what they want to build upon. Then they identify deltas (Δ), which represent opportunities for improvement or the things that can be changed.


  1. Set up a chart with two sections. This can be done on poster paper for a whole-class approach or on copy paper for individual or small group reflection.  Consider using a T-Chart to organize the two sections. 

  2. Write a plus (+) at the top of one column and the Greek letter delta (Δ) at the top of the other.

  3. Start with the pluses and have students reflect on the lesson, unit, project, activity, etc. and consider what worked well. Have them share what they believe is working well and write it in the “Plus” column.

  4. Next, have students reflect on the lesson, unit, project, activity, etc. and consider what they would have changed. Have them share and write it in the “Delta” column. Keep in mind, deltas should be specific and action oriented.

  5. Once everything has been recorded, take some time to celebrate the pluses and brainstorm the deltas, thinking of ways that these could be changed or improved upon.

Black, P., & William, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappa. Retrieved from